Navigating Gene Patenting In India’s Biotechnological Landscape

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Gene patenting occupies a critical juncture between scientific progress and legal frameworks, acting as a driving force behind biotechnological advancements. Essentially, it grants inventors exclusive rights to their discoveries, primarily in the realm of DNA sequences or genetic technologies[1]. This exclusivity serves as a motivational factor for research and development, offering a commercial avenue for groundbreaking discoveries.

Within the legal framework of India, Sections 3(c) and 3(j) of the Patent Act, 1970, play a defining role, establishing the boundaries for patentable subjects. Section 3(c) explicitly prohibits the patenting of discoveries in their natural state, whether living or non-living, while Section 3(j) places objections on the patentability of plants, animals, and biological processes. The interaction between gene patenting and these legal provisions highlights the intricate balance between technological advancement and ethical considerations, particularly in a country like India with its rich biodiversity and traditional agricultural practices.

Beyond intellectual property considerations, anti-competitive concerns loom large. The potential anti-competitive implications arise from the possibility of monopolizing genetic technologies. If a single entity or a few entities gain exclusive control over essential genetic technologies, it could stifle competition, limit choices, and raise concerns about fair market practices. This becomes particularly significant in the context of India’s delicate balance — encouraging innovation while ensuring fair competition and widespread accessibility to the benefits of genetic advancements.

Understanding this intricate interplay is vital as India navigates its path in the biotechnological landscape. Striking a delicate balance requires a nuanced approach, where legal frameworks and regulations evolve to encourage innovation without compromising fair competition. As gene patenting remains a driving force in biotechnological progress, addressing potential anti-competitive implications becomes integral to shaping policies that not only protect intellectual property but also uphold the principles of fair and open competition.

Gene Patenting Scenario in India

India’s gene patenting landscape has evolved significantly, paralleling economic and technological progress. Adaptations in gene patenting practices mirror global biotechnological advancements, crucial for aligning India with international standards and fostering innovation. Key directives, such as the 2013 Indian Biotechnology Guidelines and the 2005 Manual of Patent Office Practice and Procedure, serve as guideposts. These documents not only signify India’s commitment to global advancements but also provide a structured framework for gene patenting, ensuring consistency and transparency. This dynamic evolution, complemented by regulatory guidelines, places India at the forefront of biotechnological innovation, offering a systematic approach to ethical and legal facets of gene patenting.
Reviewing the criteria laid out in the 2005 Manual of Patent Office Practice and Procedure[2] offers insights into the standards for gene patenting in India. The emphasis in this manual is on the patentability of recombinant DNA, plasmids, and their manufacturing processes, particularly when substantial human intervention is involved[3]. The conditions for obtaining a gene patent under this manual are rigorous, including the necessity for novelty, an inventive step, and industrial applicability of the genetically modified gene sequence or amino acid sequence. Additionally, protection extends to the method of expressing the modified sequence, an antibody against the protein or sequence, and even a kit derived from the antibody or sequence.

In contrast, the Indian Biotechnology Guidelines of 2013[4] present a distinct set of criteria for gene patent eligibility. A gene is considered eligible for a patent under these guidelines if it is recombinant, displays an inventive step, and demonstrates industrial application. Notably, these guidelines do not insist on the condition of substantial human intervention, which marks a departure from the stance presented in the 2005 Manual[5].

However, navigating the landscape of gene patenting in India brings forth a set of challenges. These challenges span both legal and anti-competitive dimensions. The evolution of the criteria over time sheds light on the ongoing efforts to strike a delicate balance between incentivizing innovation and addressing anti-competitive concerns. There is a concerted effort to ensure fair competition and prevent the emergence of monopolistic practices within the gene patenting domain. This dual perspective, encompassing both legal intricacies and anti-competitive considerations, adds a layer of complexity to the framework, requiring continuous evaluation and adaptation to maintain equilibrium in fostering innovation while upholding fair market practices.

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Indian and International Practices

The legal landscape surrounding gene patenting in India is intricate, encompassing measures under the Indian Patent Act of 1970, The Protection of Plant Variety and Farmers Right (PPVFR) Act of 2001, and the Biological Diversity Act of 2002. The Indian Patent Act delineates patentable subject matter, emphasizing restrictions on discoveries occurring in nature. The PPVFR Act extends protection to plant varieties and farmers’ rights, with disclosure requirements and benefit-sharing provisions to safeguard traditional knowledge.

Globally, the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement assumes significance, establishing criteria for intellectual property protection. While TRIPS prohibits patenting of plants, animals, and substantially biological processes, it remains silent on genetic material patenting. Member states can implement measures based on ethical and social considerations, providing flexibility.

However, as gene patenting concentrates genetic technologies, anti-competitive concerns emerge. The potential monopolization of these technologies could impede fair competition, necessitating nuanced regulations. For instance, if a single entity gains exclusive control over essential genetic technologies, it may stifle competition and limit choices, leading to an anti-competitive issue. Balancing innovation incentives with anti-competitive considerations becomes imperative to prevent anti-competitive practices and ensure a level playing field.

In essence, India’s legal measures, coupled with international perspectives outlined by TRIPS, showcase a dynamic interplay between fostering innovation and addressing ethical considerations. The example of potential anti-competitive concerns underscores the importance of a delicate regulatory balance to encourage genetic advancements while safeguarding fair market practices. As gene patenting traverses both national and international realms, a harmonized approach becomes essential to navigate the intricate landscape of biotechnological innovation and prevent undue concentration of genetic technologies.Top of Form

Implications for Agriculture, Traditional Knowledge, and Threat of Monopolistic Control

The ramifications of robust legal protection for genetic engineering in plants extend beyond the laboratory, sparking concerns with implications for agriculture and traditional knowledge. While legal frameworks such as the Indian Patent Act, the PPVFR Act, and the Biological Diversity Act aim to incentivize innovation, they raise potential drawbacks, especially for local farmers and traditional knowledge holders.

One significant concern is the prospect of consolidating monopolistic control over genetic resources. Strong legal protection may empower large agro-biotech companies outside India, holding numerous gene patents related to plant genetic inventions. This concentration could limit access to genetic resources and technologies, potentially stifling competition and impeding smaller players or local farmers from utilizing and benefiting from these resources.

This scenario introduces the specter of “bio-piracy” and “cultural piracy.” The former refers to the exploitation of biological resources without proper authorization or fair compensation, often by entities from developed nations accessing the genetic diversity of developing countries[6]. In the context of gene patenting, this could manifest as unauthorized use of genetic material, potentially leading to economic exploitation without due benefit-sharing with the countries of origin.

Furthermore, “cultural piracy” becomes a pertinent concern as traditional knowledge embedded in indigenous farming practices may be exploited without adequate recognition or compensation[7]. This raises questions about the equitable distribution of benefits derived from genetic resources and the preservation of traditional agricultural methods.

In navigating these concerns, a delicate balance must be struck between encouraging innovation and protecting the interests of local farmers and traditional knowledge holders. The potential monopolistic control over genetic resources necessitates nuanced regulations to ensure fair access, benefit-sharing, and prevent undue exploitation. As gene patenting intersects with agriculture and traditional knowledge, addressing these implications becomes imperative for fostering a sustainable and equitable biotechnological landscape.

Legal Decisions Shaping Gene Patenting in India

Legal decisions profoundly influence gene patenting and biotechnological innovation in India. One such case revolves around the Genetically Stable JEV cDNA patent[8], focusing on a recombinant viral construct expressing an exogenous polypeptide in a cell. The Indian Patent Office granted this patent, deeming the genetically modified stable gene JEV cDNA novel, involving an inventive step and demonstrating industrial applicability. This case underscores the application of criteria such as novelty and inventive step in assessing gene patents, contributing to the evolution of gene patenting practices.

Another significant case is the Supreme Court ruling in Monsanto Technology LLC v Nuziveedu Seeds Ltd. Monsanto[9] alleged patent infringement on a genetically modified seed variety by Nuziveedu. The Division Bench initially held that genetically modified plants, seeds, and gene sequences providing genetic traits to plants were not patentable in India. However, the Supreme Court set aside this decision, emphasizing the need to examine the patenting of isolated DNA and cDNA. While a specific ruling on these aspects is pending, recent years have seen the patenting of cDNA in India.

These cases extend beyond legal implications, significantly shaping biotechnological innovations. The Genetically Stable JEV cDNA case sets a precedent for the patentability of genetically modified constructs, providing clarity on approval criteria. The Monsanto case has broader implications for the seed and agricultural industry, emphasizing the nuanced approach needed for gene patenting.

Examining these cases is crucial, considering their implications, particularly regarding potential monopolistic control over genetic innovations. Concentration of gene patents in a few entities could raise anti-competitive concerns by limiting competition and obstructing the free flow of genetic technologies. Thorough scrutiny is necessary, highlighting the need for regulations that balance innovation and prevent anti-competitive practices in gene patenting. As these cases unfold, their impact on the broader biotechnological landscape in India continues to shape gene patenting practices and innovations.


The complex interactions among gene patenting, legal structures, and biodiversity in India raise significant issues demanding careful consideration and practical solutions. From a legal standpoint, the evolving nature of gene patenting, evident in cases like the Genetically Stable JEV cDNA and Monsanto v Nuziveedu Seeds Ltd., emphasizes the need for nuanced regulations. Balancing incentives for innovation with measures against bio-piracy and monopolistic control is crucial. The legal framework, including the Indian Patent Act, PPVFR Act, and Biological Diversity Act, needs continuous refinement to tackle emerging challenges.

Concerning biodiversity, the potential concentration of gene patents brings forth worries about fair benefit-sharing, especially for local farmers and traditional knowledge holders. Achieving a delicate equilibrium between encouraging innovation and safeguarding biodiversity is vital. Suggestions include strengthening disclosure requirements, advocating for fair benefit-sharing mechanisms, and ensuring accessible genetic resources.

This article is authored by Ms. Shambhavi Sharma, final year student at Institute of Law Nirma University, Ahmedabad.

[1] Ravi B, “Gene Patents in India: Gauging Policy by an Analysis of the Grants Made by the Indian Patent Office” (SSRN, January 4, 2022).

[2] Manual of Patent Office Practice and Procedure, 2005.

[3] M, Lakshmikumaran,” Patenting of genetic inventions” (Journal of Intellectual Property Rights, February, 2007).

[4] the Indian Biotechnology Guidelines, 2013.

[5] M, Lakshmikumaran,” Patenting of genetic inventions” (Journal of Intellectual Property Rights, February, 2007).

[6] Ravi B, “Gene Patents in India: Gauging Policy by an Analysis of the Grants Made by the Indian Patent Office” (SSRN, January 4, 2022).

[7] Ibid.

[8] V, Pujari, “Patentability of DNA Related Inventions: The Indian Context”, (Mondaq, September 11, 2023).

[9] Monsanto Technology LLC v. Nuziveedu & Ors, AIR 2019 SC 559


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